Autor: Sebastian Laclabere, Mamiko Fujiyama, Ishida Toshikazu
Chile has a long history of earthquakes and tsunamis and as a result the country has developed a strict regulation system that allow for an adequate response in case of earthquakes. On the other hand, the responses to tsunami events are still in development, especially after the 2010 earthquake and tsunami. The city of Iquique, that suffered an earthquake and minor tsunami in 2014, presents a challenge for a potential tsunami, as large areas could suffer severe damage, with inundations of 5-10 meters. Even more, in many cases the distances between the shore and the security areas are extremely long, generating excessive evacuation times and risk for the population. This paper examines Iquique and its potential tsunami scenarios, identifying and locating its weaknesses and possible improvements through a study of its evacuation routes, safety areas and potentially inundated zones in case of tsunami. This evaluation can help us achieve a clearer picture of Iquique, and a better understanding of the requirements of other similar Chilean coastal cities from an urban design perspective. Finally, this paper explores the addition of improvements to the urban safety network, particularly a system of vertical evacuation structures that could complement the existing situation.
The Study of the Urban Safety Network for Disaster in Iquique, Chile